"Scientific argumentation is an important practice in science. We define scientific argumentation as an attempt to validate or refute a claim on the basis of reasons in a manner that reflects the values of the scientific community (Norris, Philips, & Osborne, 2007). A claim, in this context, is not simply an opinion or an idea; rather, it is a conjecture, explanation, or other conclusion that provides a sufficient answer to a research question. The term “reasons” is used to describe the support someone offers for a conclusion. The term “evidence” is often used to describe the reasons used by scientists, especially when the support is based on data gathered through an investigation..."
--Victor Sampson & Sharon Schleigh
Scientific Argumentation in Biology, 30 Classroom Activities